Original Article

Citral Protects Human Endothelial Cells against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress


  • Leila Safaeian
  • Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi
  • Hossein Montazeri
  • Farzaneh Ohadi
  • Shaghayegh Javanmard

Turk J Pharm Sci 0;0(0):0-0 [e-Pub]


Oxidative stress has a major role in endothelial dysfunction. Citral is a monoterpene aldehyde with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of citral on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress.

Materials and Methods:

The cells were treated with citral (0.625-10 μg/ml) for 24h before exposure to H2O2 (0.5 mM, 2h). Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The hydroperoxide concentrations and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids.


Pretreatment of HUVECs with citral at the concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/ml significantly enhanced the cell viability in H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. It reduced the intra-cellular hydroperoxides level at the concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/ml and the extra-cellular hydroperoxides level at the concentrations of 2.5-10 μg/ml. Pretreatment with citral significantly increased the FRAP value in intra- and extra-cellular fluids at the concentration range of 1.25-10 μg/ml.


Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects were found for citral against oxidative damage induced by H2O2 in human endothelial cells. However, more studies in this area are needed to assess its clinical value for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Citral, HUVECs, oxidative stress, antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide