Original Article

Prospective-Drug Utilization Evaluation Analysis in Ear, Nose, and Throat Outpatient Department: Incorporating Benchmarks and World Health Organization Indicators


  • Vinodkumar MUGADA
  • Blessy JAYAMON
  • Bindu Krishna KOSIREDDY
  • Bhagya Sri PALISETTY
  • Apoorva PINISETTI

Received Date: 10.07.2023 Accepted Date: 23.09.2023 Turk J Pharm Sci 0;0(0):0-0 [e-Pub]


A drug utilization study is a tool for determining the effectiveness of drug use. Our research aims to evaluate the drug usage patterns in Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) outpatient settings by incorporating established benchmarks and World Health Organization (WHO) indicators.


We conducted a drug utilization evaluation (DUE) study on 800 patients from the ENT outpatient department (OPD). Initially, we gathered data on the currently prescribed medications and, through careful analysis, identified discrepancies. To rectify any irrational prescribing patterns identified among physicians, we utilized continuing educational activities like 'Dear Doctor' letters and personal consultations. We applied the WHO's core indicators, specifically prescribing and patient care indicators, and established benchmarks to encourage rational prescribing.


The three most common diagnoses identified were pharyngitis (51.49%), allergic rhinitis (25.11%), and Acute Suppurative Otitis Media (21.17%). Montelukast, in combination with levocetirizine (13.77%) and amoxicillin paired with clavulanic acid (8.81%), were the most frequently prescribed medications. The study revealed prescribing indicators such as an excessive number of drugs per prescription (4.2), low usage of generic names (33.0%), and suboptimal reliance on the Essential Drugs List (76.7%). Furthermore, patient care indicators demonstrated room for improvement, particularly concerning consultation times (6mins), dispensing times (30secs), and drug labelling practices (0% labelled). The DUE positively impacted WHO patient care indicators and the prescription of first-line drugs for various diseases, suggesting a shift toward adherence to recommended treatment guidelines.


The study results showed an overuse of prescribed drugs, a lack of utilization of generic names, and less than optimal use of the Essential Drugs List (EDL). Additionally, shortcomings in patient care were observed, including issues in consultation, drug dispensing times, and labelling. However, it was found that the DUE effectively improved WHO patient care metrics and the prescription of first-line drugs.

Keywords: drug utilization, world health organization, amoxicillin, suppurative otitis media, benchmarking, montelukast