Analysis of anticancer taxanes in Turkish hazelnut (<i>Corylus avellana L</i>.) genotypes by high-performance liquid chromatography
Original Article
P: 0-0

Analysis of anticancer taxanes in Turkish hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) genotypes by high-performance liquid chromatography

Turk J Pharm Sci 0;0(0):0-0
1. İstanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, İstanbul, Turkey
2. Düzce University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, Düzce, Turkey
3. Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, Samsun, Turkey
No information available.
No information available
Received Date: 26.08.2023
Accepted Date: 23.12.2023



This study aimed to investigate the anticancer taxane profiles of edible and non-edible parts of seven Turkish hazelnut (Corylus avellana) genotypes. Hazelnut is one of the healthy foods rich in nutrients and antioxidants. Its regular consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and cancer. Hazelnut has been described as a plant source that produces taxanes which are widely used in many cancers. Turkey is a homeland of hazelnut culture and has its own cultivars. Investigation of anticancer taxane profiles in different parts of Turkish hazelnut genotypes is important to show the potential and value of this plant from the perspective of the pharmaceutical and food industries.

Materials and Methods:

In this study, green leafy covers-GLCs and hard shells-HSs (non-edible parts), skinless kernels-SKs, brown skins-BSs, and brown-skinned kernels-BSKs (edible parts) of ‘Çakıldak’, ‘Sivri’, ‘Tombul’, ‘Palaz’, and ‘Kalınkara’ as standard and ‘Ham’, and ‘Sivri Yağlı’ as local genotypes were used. The five parts of each genotype were ground to powder and eliminated to a size of less than 80 mesh. Each part was extracted by hexane and methanol for 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III), baccatin III (BAC III), cephalomannine, and paclitaxel analysis as three replicates. Samples and standards were analyzed by acetonitrile:water gradient method on NOVA Spher 100 Phenyl-Hexyl C18 column in HPLC reverse phase system with 228 nm UV detector and 1.0 mL/min flow rate. Microsoft Office Excel, 2016, and ANOVA Jamovi Version 2.3 were used for statistical and data analysis, consecutively.


Hazelnut parts differed to a very high degree from each other in terms of the highest amount of 10- DAB III (Ham HSs, 9,15 μg/g), BAC III (Kalınkara BSs, 7.24 μg/g), cephalomannine (‘Sivri Yağlı’ BSs, 6.37 μg/g) and paclitaxel (Ham BSKs, 4.36 μg/g) they contained. While HSs, BSKs, and BSs were rich in taxanes in all of the analyzed genotypes, SKs, and GLCs remain limited for anticancer taxanes.


This is the first report that revealed the differences in taxane contents of Turkish hazelnuts including previously untested standard and local genotypes and their parts. Significant differences between genotype and hazelnut parts are expected to highlight the health benefits of consuming raw Turkish hazelnut with brown skins and their possible use as a functional food. These results add more information to elucidate the bioactive potential of Turkish hazelnuts and their by-products and provide a promising resource for the food and pharmaceutical industry with an anticancer perspective.

Keywords: Corylus avellana, taxanes, anticancer, functional foods, by-products

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